Kodály's Dances of Galánta open today’s concert, followed by Ligeti’s avant-garde-but-traditional Violin Concerto. After intermission, we’ll enjoy Beethoven’s Symphony No. 2, a watershed in his compositional output.
(Born 16 December 1882; Kecskemét, Hungary; Died 6 March 1967; Budapest, Hungary)
First performance: 23 October 1933; Budapest, Hungary
Last MSO performance: June 2014; Gilbert Varga, conductor
Instrumentation: 2 flutes (2nd doubling piccolo), 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 4 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, percussion (glockenspiel, snare drum, triangle), strings
Approximate duration: 15 minutes
Like his Hungarian compatriots Béla Bartók and Leoš Janáček, Zoltán Kodály roamed the countryside writing down the indigenous melodies and texts as the peasants sang them in situ. The number of folksongs that these three gentlemen so carefully collected were published in huge anthologies that display an impressively high standard of ethnomusicological scholarship.
Kodály penned the Dances of Galánta in 1933, to mark the 80th anniversary of the Budapest Philharmonic Society. He utilized gypsy tunes from Galánta, a small Slovakian town 30 miles due east of Bratislava where he spent several happy childhood years, garnered from a collection of Hungarian dance published in Vienna over a century earlier. (In other words, his source material did not come his countryside expeditions.)
Dances of Galanta makes extensive use of the verbunkos, a Hungarian dance-show that dates from the 18th and 19th centuries. The verbunkos was staged for potential enlistees by the hussars and their recruiting sergeant; the implicit message was that a soldier’s life is endless fun. Cast in rondo form, the work begins with a slow introduction that yields to a clarinet cadenza. Then, through divergent, swashbuckling episodes, Kodály raises the temperature into a rollicking dance. Following a quieter episode, again featuring the clarinet, the coda sweeps all before it in a brusque torrent of sound.
Recommended recording: Antal Dorati; Philharmonia Hungarica (Decca)
(Born 28 May 1923; Târnăveni, Romania; Died 12 June 2006; Vienna Austria)
First performance: 8 October 1992; Cologne, Germany (revised version)
Last MSO performance: MSO premiere
Instrumentation: 2 flutes (1st doubling alto flute and treble recorder, 2nd doubling piccolo and descant recorder), oboe (doubling soprano ocarina), 2 clarinets (1st doubling E-flat clarinet and sopranino ocarina, 2nd doubling bass clarinet and alto ocarina), bassoon (doubling soprano ocarina), 2 horns, trumpet, trombone, timpani, percussion (suspended cymbals, crotales, chimes, gong, tam tam, wood block, tambourine, snare drum, bass drum, whip, whistle, glockenspiel, xylophone, vibraphone, marimba), strings
Approximate duration: 28 minutes
The Romanian-born, Hungarian-Austrian composer György Ligeti (pronounced “LEE-guh-tee”) is considered one of the most important avant-garde composers of the latter part of the 20th century. Ligeti, who emigrated from Hungary to Austria in 1956 (later becoming a citizen there), is perhaps best-known in this country from Stanley Kubrick’s appropriation of snippets of his music in the films 2001: A Space Odyssey, The Shining, and Eyes Wide Shut.
Ligeti’s family was Jewish. His education was interrupted in 1944 when he was sent to a forced labor brigade; his younger brother was sent to Mauthausen concentration camp, and both of his parents to Auschwitz. He and his mother were the only two who survived. After the war, he returned to school, graduating from Budapest’s Franz Liszt Academy in 1949. (Zoltán Kodály was one of his professors there.) Following the failed Hungarian uprising of 1956, Ligeti fled to Vienna with his wife Vera, only returning to Hungary 14 years later, to judge a competition in Budapest.
His music is some of the 20th century’s richest. It is hard to categorize, because Ligeti’s creativity is overwhelming in its variety and expressive power. He resisted the system-for-system’s sake approach of his contemporaries—whether Cage’s chance, Xenakis’s stochasticism, or Boulez’s version of 12-tone composition. This mean that, in practically every new piece he set down, he had to find a new kind of expression.
The Violin Concerto synthesizes Ligeti’s avant-garde explorations with more traditional melodic and formal conventions. You’ll hear microtonality—which requires the principal violinist and principal violist to retune their instruments—and rapidly changing textures. As Allan Kozinn noted in The New York Times (14 November 2005), “Other influences jostle for the spotlight as well, including Hungarian folk melodies, Bulgarian dance rhythms, references to medieval and Renaissance music, and solo violin writing that ranges from the slow-paced and sweet-toned to the angular and fiery. Depending on your tolerance for non-sequiturs, it could seem either hopelessly diffuse or amusingly omnivorous.”
The soloist opens the concerto with a repeated pattern; the harmonics of the solo violin and the two “mistuned” orchestra members clash constantly. Accented notes from the marimba and xylophone punctuate the texture. In the second movement, the solo violin sings a Hungarian-spiced “Aria,” and is soon joined by the viola, then flutes and double bass. A distinctive feature is the use of hocket, a medieval practice in which a single melody is shared between two or more voices. The third-movement Intermezzo is the shortest of the five; here, the soloist plays a soaring melody in the violin’s high register against the rapidly descending scales of the orchestral strings, creating a thick-textured canon.
A passacaglia is a set of variations over a ground bass. (Bach’s Passacaglia in C minor, BWV 582, is a classic example.) The ground bass need not stay in the lowest voice, and such is the case in the fourth movement, where the soloist plays mostly high, long-held notes against a slowing ascending chromatic scale. The finale brings together elements from the previous moments: the shimmering harmonies; the high, slow-moving melodies; the rhythmic complexities; the Hungarian folksong. Likewise, the soloist’s madly virtuosic cadenza, newly written by Thomas Adès, incorporates music heard earlier; it is brutally silenced by a high-pitched woodblock, stopping the concerto dead in its tracks, with the flutes having the brief final word.
Recommended recording: Saschko Gawfiloff; Pierre Boulez, Ensemble InterContermporain (Deutsche Grammophon)
Ludwig van Beethoven
(Baptized 17 December 1770; Bonn, Germany; Died 26 March 1827; Vienna, Austria)
First performance: 5 April 1803; Vienna, Austria
Last MSO performance: February 2013; Edo de Waart, conductor
Instrumentation: 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, timpani, strings
Approximate duration: 32 minutes
Beethoven spent the summer of 1802 in the village of Heiligenstadt (now part of larger Vienna). It was a musically prolific time for him, and there he put the final touches on his Symphony No. 2. But the 31-year-old master was already aware that his hearing was beginning to deteriorate. In October, as he prepared to return to central Vienna, he carefully wrote a document to his two brothers describing his depression, but declaring he had now rejected the idea of suicide. This “Heiligenstadt Testament” is a heartbreaking testimony to the despair that frequently overtook him during this period in his life.
It is an affirmation of Beethoven’s genius—as though one were needed—to realize that the Heiligenstadt Testament and the “richly textured, emotionally vital” (P.G. Downs) Symphony No. 2 co-inhabited the brain of their creator: the self-confidence evident in the latter is worlds away from the despairing mood of the former. (Sidebar: In his book Diagnosing Genius: The Life and Death of Beethoven (2007), F.M. Mai states the composer had bi-polar disorder.)
In his Second Symphony, Beethoven employs the instrumental forces and the layout of Haydn’s last 12 symphonies—with a slow introduction and rondo finale. “Although Haydn could never have written this work,” states Beethoven scholar Joseph Kerman, “it stands as a final ideal realization of the concept of a large piece which he had developed.”
The 33-measure introduction is slow and dramatic, abundant in the sort of powerful music the master would continue to exploit throughout his life. The Allegro con brio’s main theme is presented in the lower strings; clarinets, bassoons, and horns intone its martial-like second theme.
The second movement is a large-scale sonata form, “one of the most sensuous of all Beethoven’s Larghettos” (Lewis Lockwood). Its lyricism prompted Donald Francis Tovey to call it the touchstone of what is beautiful and childlike in music. In place of Haydn’s minuet-and-trio—employed by Beethoven in his own Symphony No. 1—Beethoven opted for a scherzo; in so doing, he forever changed the standard symphonic layout.
The fiery rondo-finale is, to our ears, unadulterated Beethoven. To his 1803 audience, though, it must have been shocking—bizarre, even—what with its relentless energy that suddenly stops, its breaks in texture and continuity, its in-your-face sense of humor. Beethoven led the first performance of his Op. 36, on a Viennese concert that included the premieres of his Piano Concerto No. 3 and the oratorio Christ on the Mount of Olives. The concert received mixed reviews, but reportedly was a box-office success, a combination not unheard-of even today.
Recommended recording: Sir John Eliot Gardiner, Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique (Archiv)